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A string of characters. All strings are immutable, concatenation of strings will in fact create a new string.

Default typing

In the absence of further type information, the following types are added to the chain:


function void main() {
   var i:String;
   var p:="Hello World!";

In this example variable i is explicitly declared to be of type String. Variable p is found, via type inference, also to be of type String.

Since: Version 0.41b


When a variable is assigned to another, depending on where each variable is allocated to, there may be communication required to achieve this assignment. Table \ref{tab:eltypecomm} details the communication rules in the assignment \emph{assignmed variable := assigning variable}. If the communication is issued from MPMD programming style then this will be one sided. The default communication listed here is guaranteed to be safe, which may result in a small performance hit.

Assigned Variable Assigning Variable Semantics
multiple[] multiple[] local assignment
single[on[i]] multiple[] individual processes write values to process i
multiple[] single[on[i]] individual processes read values from process i
single[on[i]] single[on[i]] local assignment where i==i
single[on[i]] single[on[j]] communication from j to i where i!=j

Communication Example

var a:Int;
var b:Int :: allocated[single[on[2]]];
var p;
par p from 0 to 3 {
   if (p==2) b:=p;

This code will result in each process reading the value of b from process 2 and then writing this into a. As already noted, in absence of allocation information the default of allocating to all processes is used. In this example the variable a can be assumed to additionally have the type allocated[multiple]. Note that communication groups are the same as multiple in this context and share the same semantics. All variables marked multiple are private to their containing process.

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